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 A Guide for Beginners.

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PostSubject: A Guide for Beginners.   Tue Oct 12, 2010 9:16 pm

Hey folks. Greers7j here just popping in to add a nice little guide for all you people.

As I am still in the home studio area, I thought it would be good for me to point out some nice tips for a beginner.

I know everyone has different opinions, which is why the world is the way it is, so I am writing this purely from MY point of view.
Every person will tell you a different thing, so I shall basically run you through what i think would be a good idea for a home/project studio, starting from picking your hardware to getting your very first take recorded. This guide is mainly focused on using a computer/DAW, as I find this is the best way to learn and advance quickly when recording as it gives you easy options and lots of flexibility.

(Please note, I will constantly be updating this post, adding links into the sections over time to give product examples and adding in examples of equipment and posts from other members of the forum to hopefully create a comprehensive guide for beginners.)

So, here goes.


In the box, or out the box?

Many of you here will probably have heard this expression before, and have taken different approaches to tackle this question. For those who dont know, I'll do a small explanation of both these terms just now.
In the Box -
In the box is basically, you do everything that you require with the software that you have at your disposal WITHIN the computer. So mixing, effects, plugins, mastering, is all done via software inside your computer.
Advantages -
Flexible, fairly inexpensive, less clutter with cables, less hardware to find room for, You can find alot of free software to help you along your way.
Disadvantages -
Highly Dependant on your computers resources. Software doesn't always sound as good as Hardware. Some computing Knowledge is required for some of the more complicated setups. No knobs to twiddle Very Happy
Out the Box -
Pretty much the opposite of the above. This tends to use Hardware running alongside your computer/software to process the audio. Hardware could be processors such as Compressors, EQ's, Limiters, pretty much any Hardware that you could use to alter the recorded material.
- Probably the best route for getting the sound quality to its premium. Hardware offloads the need for faster computers. Can get very specialised pieces of equipment that you can add in from all manufacturers for your specific needs.
- Can be Expensive when buying lots of hardware. Needs lots of room/power and cables to make connections. Usually with hardware more knowledge is needed, but this isnt always the case.
So what should i go for?.

If it is your first time wanting to experiment with the wonders of Engineering, I would personally say go In the Box.
The internet
can give you plenty of free options to download, whether it be Recording Software, Free VST plugins, or being able to download presets for effects that you have already installed, the options are almost limitless. The general easy of use, of having everything contained in one place is always a good thing when you are beginning to start your engineering journey. Having to deal with connecting lots of equipment and setting up signal paths can be a daunting task for someone completely fresh to the concept of it all, so i really feel in the box can help you at least get to graps with the concepts, and give a nice little inexpensive platform to hone your skills on.


Now that you have decided on what you would like to work with, this stage will be the same regardless of what you choose to do.
Choosing a set of Monitors.

Q. What are these monitors you speak of?

A. In the simplest term, they are Speakers.
Monitors are a very specific type of speakers which are designed to allow you to Monitor (Hear) the music that you are working with. Monitors differ from your tradition speakers a little with regards to how they represent sound. Monitors are designed to be very "Linear" which means that they dont "Colour" or change the sound of the source material that they recieve, allowing you to hear as close to the original sound as you can, which lets face it, isn't that what recording and mixing is all about?
When choosing your monitors, budget is your main restriction. you can spent literally thousands of dollars/pounds/euro's on a set of monitors, and if you are starting off, this may seem like a big hurdle to overcome (And it is!). Never fear though, there are plenty of options at a fraction of that cost.
Bigger is better? Yes. The larger your monitors, the better they will represent the bass frequencies, and they will normally come with a tweeter which will deal with the high frequencies. Generally, to keep it simple, aim for a set of monitors with speakers around the 5-7inch mark and a 1in tweeter that are about 20-40watt in power.. This will give you a great starting set of monitors to start on your journey and keep the wallet nice and full. I highly recommend M-Audio/Avid for their monitors http://www.maudio.com/products/en_us/StudiophileAV40.html. Inexpensive and a fantastic sound as well, would be KRK if your budget can stretch that far. http://www.krksys.com/product_rokit.php
Once you have decided upon some monitors for your studio, you need need something to record your sources with. Now we walk into the domain of the Microphone.

Microphones. Such a simple task they do, but also a highly important one. What is this task you say? They capture sound. Simple enough? Well, yes and no. Every microphone does a different thing. Think of them like a person at work. They all have a job to do, but they all do it differently, fill in different roles, are better at one thing than another, can be used for multiple tasks, and some downright fail at a specific task than others.

For the sake of this guide, i will describe 2 different types of mics.
Dynamic -
Dynamic microphones don't require power. Their sound quality is generally very good. Most dynamic microphones have a limited frequency response, usually meaning less high end frequency response, which makes them well-suited, along with their ability to withstand high sound pressure levels, for loud guitar amps, live vocals, and drums. They are very rugged and are generally the kind of mic you see a vocalist using on stage, and more often than not, it is the legendary Shure SM58. (http://www.shure.co.uk/products/microphones/sm58)

Examples of good Dynamic microphones.
Shure SM57 (Studio Standard and I would recommend this being your first Dynamic Mic) http://www.shure.co.uk/products/microphones/sm57
Sennheiser MD421
Audix i5

Condenser - Condenser microphones are the most common types of microphones you'll find in studios. They have a much greater frequency response and transient response - which is the ability to reproduce the "speed" of an instrument or voice and generally they capture the widest frequency response. Condenser microphones are generally much more expensive than dynamic microphones and they require power to be able to operate in the form of Phantom 48v power. Condenser microphones have one major drawback. Sensitivity. Loud sounds can easily distort the microphone and in general they cant take much abuse, so be very carefull with them. A fall may mean death to your poor condenser mic.
With condenser microphones, you'll find two different types: small diaphragm, and large diaphragm.

Large Diaphragm Microphones - Large diaphragm microphones (LDMs) are generally the choice for studio vocals, and any instrument recording where a more "deep" sound is desired. A large diaphragm microphone generally warms up the sound of what it's recording, which also leads to the myth that most LDMs reproduce low frequencies better than small diaphragm mics; this isn't true, in fact, small diaphragm mics are much better at reproducing everything evenly, including bass. You'll want a pop screen if using a condenser microphone for vocals; they're so sensitive to transient noises that the "P" and "SH" sounds you make will cause distortion.

Examples of Large Diaphram Condensers.
AKG Perception series. (I own alot of these mics, and I can tell you, for the price, my personal opinion is nothing beats them.)
Rode NT-2
Neumann U-87

Small Diaphragm Microphones - Small diaphragm microphones (SDMs) are generally the best choice where you want a solid, wide frequency response and the best transient response, which as we mentioned before, is the ability for your microphone to reproduce fast sounds, such as stringed instruments. SDMs are also the preferred choice for concert taping.
Ahhhhh....my head hurts!! Too many choices!! Dont panic. For the sake of a home studio, if you are starting off, the best thing to do, is get one of each. This will allow you to record almost everything that you can throw at your studio (Minus drums ofc).

Recording Drums is a little more tricky. This requires a combination of microphones. I wont go into much detail here appart from, anything that is loud. Kicks/Toms/Snare you want your dynamic mics on, and for cymbals and overheads, this is where your condensers come in. A starting point would be to look up some drum sets online. Samson do a fantastic value drum kit microphone set that comprises of enuogh mics to suit your needs, and if you are short on mics, you can always expand this with individual mics later on once your budget permits. http://www.samsontech.com/products/productpage.cfm?prodID=1772&brandID=2.

As you may notice, the drum kit that samson sell, is also a viable option to buy on its own. With the set you get a few large diaphram condensers that you could use for other purposes, a pencil condenser for instrument micing, and a nice dynamic mic to go along with it. If you REALLY are on a budget, and require alot of mics for drums, then this set may also cross over into the other areas that you may need to record, saving yourself some money to commit to other areas that may need attention. Having the best gear wont help if you cant cover the grounds you need to cover, and if you dont know how to use it properly. A $2000 micrphone can sound like complete ass if used incorectly.
Knowledge, Experience and Practise are your key tools. Knowledge comes from experience which comes from practise. Use your tools wisely.


Getting the Audio into My Computer.

Once you have decided on what mics you will be using, you need a way to get your captured sounds from those mics to your computer.
The simple chain is as follows. Mic - Preamp - Interface - Computer.
The part that we will focus on in this section will be the Preamp and Interface.
Q. What is a Preamp?
A. The preamp is the part which is probably one of the more important aspects of the signal chain. The preamp takes a signal, normally from a microphone and amplifies the signal to a desired level. The quality of the preamp determines how loud you can go without noise, how well the sound comes through, what frequecies it can handle well, how it colours the sound as well as how much headroom and gain it has. There are many reasons to choose a specific preamp. Every preamp does a different thing. Some colour the sound more than others. Some are very clear and transparent and don't alter the sound much from the source. Others have built in compressors, some come with limiters and others with 48V phantom power. Your choice is decerning factor that will influence which preamp to aim for.
Preamps can come with all sorts of features. Some are standalone, some are part of all in one interfaces, some are built into mixing desk's. Overall, the better the quality the preamp, the better the sound will come through from the source, which is exactly what your after.
Q. What is an Interface?
A. An interface is simply a way to convert the Analogue signal from your source into the Digital realm that your computer understands. The Term A/D convertion is often used here. This is the process of converting the Analogue signal that your equipment works with, to the Digital signals that your computer can understand, which is the task of your interface.
There as so many options that I cant really go into great detail here. All you need to worry about for now, is, does the interface have enough inputs to get your audio into your computer, and does it have the correct connection to the computer for your needs. You can get Internal PCI cards with inputs on the back, breakout boxes, or cable to connect to specific hardware (Pro-tools hardware is a good example of this), USB interfaces, or Firewire interfaces. The choice is purely up to you.
Q. How many Inputs and Outputs do I need?
A. I see this question pop up all the time and there is no "correct" answer here. What it really comes down to is what you intend to record, and how many instruments you will record at the one time. To expand on this a little, we'll use a nice little "simple" setup in a recording situation.

Ok, so you have a band that wishes to record some songs with you. They have a 7 piece drum kit, 2 guitar amps, 1 bass amp, a keyboard and a Vocalist. Add these all up and you get 13. (7 for drums, 2 for guitar, 1 for bass, 2 for stereo keyboard and 1 for vocals?) Correct? Technically yes, and technically no.
If you were recording the band live, then yes, you would probably need all those channels to be able to record them, but in the studio, you have the wonderfull option of being able to do the instruments individually. This way you can record each at different times, meaning less inputs. In this session the maximum you would need would be 7 for the drums, giving you 1 free channel DURING recording.

The example above is the simplest example and by all means do not treat it like a hard rule to follow. You always extra inputs because extra is always better than not enough. You may want to add room mics to the drum session, double up overheads, mic up certain parts of a drum kit twice, record both guitars live etc so always have some extra inputs incase you need to experiment. I like to follow a nice simple rule, but your budget will ultimately be the deciding factor on how much inputs you require.

For every 2 inputs have 1 extra input or if you cannot afford this For every 3 inputs have 1 extra.

Now for the outputs, you can get away with much less. The amount of outputs you require can be a really simple decision depending on the rest of your setup.
First of all, you will need AT LEAST 2. Why 2 you ask? Simple answer. You need outputs for your Speakers/Monitors or to go to a monitor matrix such as the Mackie Big Knob http://www.mackie.com/products/bigknob/ or the Behringer Monitor Matrix http://www.behringer.com/EN/Products/MON800.aspx which would then connect to your Monitors.

Next you should consider if you would like the flexibility of adding in extra outputs for any external hardware that you may wish to connect to. (The types of devices will be listed in the Outboard Hardware section in this guide).
VERY IMPORTANT. For every output you will be using to connect to the external gear you will need 1 input free! Stereo will need 2 outs and 2 ins.
The reason is the output feeds the input of the external piece of gear, which then needs a way to send the output back into your interface/DAW.

A small example using this could be something simple as having an external compressor that you would like to use on a vocal track AFTER it has been recorded. You would setup your DAW to send the output from a certain track through the interface to 1 of the output which would then carry it to the Compressor. The compressor then processes it, then feeds it back into a free input on your interface, then back into your DAW.

Q. Mixerless or not? Should I use a mixer?
A. There is no correct answer here. Digital mixers tend to have all the preamps you need, plus faders, effects, gain control's, eq's built in, and can connect via usb/firewire or a card to your computer, allowing you to have your preamps and interface all in one. The drawbacks to this are they tend to be very expensive and take up alot of room.
The other option is to go mixerless and use seperate preamps/interfaces. This tends to be cheaper and less clutter with more flexibility for expansion and changing out parts.
This can be broken down into a further 2 parts.

Interface with preamps or Seperate interface and Preamps.

Here you can consider which would be easier for you. All in one interfaces such as the M-audio Profire 2626 (http://www.m-audio.com/products/en_us/ProFire2626.html) are very compact, have preamps built in, come with some software and controls to allow you to configure them and are really a great starting point for beginning recording. Seperate options allow you to be much more specific in the choices of what you would like to go for. You can pick specific preamps that you like the sound of , and then put them through an interface of your choice to get it onto you computer.
2 examples of a setup using this method is actually the method I use in my own studio. I have 2 setups. 1 for guitar/vocals and one for everything else.

Guitar/Vocal Signal Chain -
M-Audio DMP1 Preamp > M-Audio Delta 44 Interface.
16 Input Chain - 2 x M-Audio Octane Preamps > M-Audio Lightbridge interface.
The choice here is purely what your budget permits.

What software should I use?
Now that your Studio is starting to look more like, well, a studio, your decisions from now on are very important.

Here we shall be talking about what software your studio will be using to do your recording. This is probably a very important choice that you may want to do a fair amount of research into as there are SOO many choices in software packages you can get. First off, i'll give a quick run through of your most important asset in your computer based studio, The Digital Audio Workstation (DAW).

The Digital Audio Workstation has been a major breakthrough in simplicity for studios, both professional and home worldwide. The DAW is basically an interface that lets your manipulate and control recorded audio that you have been working with. It allows you to have a visual representation of a "Virtual Mixer", with faders, controls, insert slots (just like the real thing) without any issues of millions of cables running around and causes your cat to go crazy when it gets tangled up in 8 1/4inch TRS cables coming from rack effects. You have the power to route channels into seperate busses, create effects tracks, manipulate audio, chop takes up into sections etc etc. Basically, anything that you need to do to audio, can usually be done within the DAW. You are probably getting a picture of why choosing the correct DAW is very important. Personally, this is an area i would STRONGLY recommend that you do some homework into and pic which you feel would be a good choice for your studio.

Here I can recommend some software for a few reasons, which i also will explain.

First off, the main contender which most of you will have probably heard/used/seen at some point. Digidesign/Avid Pro-Tools. http://www.avid.com/US/
Pro-tools is seen as the Studio Standard for the most part, and for good reason. Its an incredibly powerful piece of software, and has all the features that you can imagine and need to do the production that you wish. Pro-tools comes in a few different varieties, and also requires specific Hardware/Interfaces to run on. Each version is suited for a specific task and area of use, so there is a few options you may want to consider when purchasing this software.

The second one that alot of people use in home studios comes from Steinberg. Cubase. http://www.steinberg.net/en/home.html
Cubase is very similair to Pro-tools, except that it can be run standalone with almost any interface that you have, even built in sound cards on PC's. Pricing for cubase tends to work out less due to this fact, as you really only need to purchase the software. Cubase also has a technology called VST built in native which mainly deals with plugins, but ill touch upon this later as well as a much better support for MIDI than Pro-Tools.. Cubase, like Pro-tools also comes in a few different varieties, so choosing which one you would like, is basically what you think would suit your needs.

The 3rd one I will go into is one I've used previously as it is a VERY nice piece of software at a very reasonable price. Magix Samplitude Studio. http://www.samplitude.com/en/
This is pretty much a cubase copy in terms of how it works so everything said about Cubase applies here except the interface is much slicker for the first time DAW user. There are plenty of features built in to help you craft your music, get an understanding of how your DAW works, and has very nice built in Virtual instruments to help you add some flavour to your songs quickly.

These are only 3 that I can give an honest opinion on as I havn't used anything other than those listed above. There are plently more out there that will do the job just as good. In the end, the user will determine the outcome more than the software most of the time, so a little reading up on different DAW's will help you on your way.

Once you are set in your ways with the DAW, now comes the fun part of picking what type of processing programs you would like to use.

Enter the domain of Plugins.

Q. What does VST stand for and what is a VST plugin?
A. VST stands for "Virtual Studio Technology". With the increasing focus on DAW's, and the ever increasing power of computers, designers took advantage of this and created small programs that could be "Plugged" into the digital realm to act like a Hardware unit, hence the name "Plugin". There are many types of plugins that can be used and of many different types. Steinberg products use mainly VST, Digidesign/Avid use mainly RTAS but there are many more plugin types that are on the market and some that comes as cross platform and some that can be "wrapped" to operate in other DAW's. For the focus of this guide, I'll focus on the VST plugin format, but the principles here are basically the same as any other type.

Examples of plugins - Compressors, EQ's, Delays, Amp Sims, Reverb's, Maximisers, basically anything that you could think of, you could probably get a plugin for that.

Q. Ok, so I have a bunch of files here that are supposed to be my plugins...how do I actually use them?
A. Opening a plugin by its own probably wont do anything, as they need to "plugged in" to something to operate. Depending on your platform, the installation procedure differs a little. On a Windows platform, you can create a Folder anywhere and call it what you wish (Calling it VST's would be a great help for finding it though ). Once the folder has been created you pop all your plugins into this folder and then from within your DAW there should be an option to specify the VST folder. Point your DAW to this folder and BOOM, all your plugins should now be recognised by your DAW. From there on in, you would select your plugin as a channel insert and then use it like you would a piece of hardware plugged into the computer.

Below is an image of what your plugins would look like loaded into the DAW of your choice.

Using them is pretty much just twiddling the controls and learning how they work. There are no hard and fast rules to this. Using your ear to determine what a plugin does is probably the best way you should approach it. Browse online to see if you can find specific plugins that would suit your needs, and if need be, some guide on how to use them. Members on this forum will be more than happy to answer any questions you have regarding the topics.


Studio Outboard/Hardware

Ok, so you now have an operational studio. You look around and think "This still doesn't look like the studios in the pictures...Where are my glowy lights??".

The big difference between Home Studio's and Professional Studio's tend to be the amount of Hardware Processors that are installed. Outboard Gear tends to come mainly in the form of "Rack Units". These units can be expensive, but more often than not they tend to make up for this with superior sound quality and allowing more power to be freed up by the computer.

During this guide, some of the equipment that I have been talking about, will have been Rack Units, so you may have seen already what rack equipment looks like. If not, never fear, there will be plenty of examples in this section to give you a good idea.

First off, lets talk about where and when you would use external hardware to process your audio.

There are 2 situations that you would use Hardware in. Whilst Tracking and After Tracking.

Whilst Tracking - When recording your performances, your signal passed from its source to the DAW. Between here, you can process the audio before it even hits your interface by using some external hardware. This would involve adding something into your signal chain, and recording with the new chain.

Lets do a small example of how this would work when recording a Vocal performance. Taking a standard signal chain consiting of Mic > Preamp > Interface, you want to add compression using your nice shiny compressor that you have purchased. You would connect you compressor into your signal chain after the preamp, then connect it to your interface. Once done, fire up your DAW and monitor the input. Have the singer do some takes whilst listening to the sound, dial in the compressors settings, then record the take with the new settings. You now have a nice processed audio track that you can play back without using any extra plugins and using up any extra processing power trying to achive the same result "In the Box".

Ok, you have now just used the Hardware to record, what if you are unhappy with the result? Well, sadly, theres not much you can do. When recording during tracking, the result is final and cannot be undone. Not something you really want to get into the habbit of doing, especially if the singer gets a sore throat Very Happy.

After Tracking. - This works in a similair manner to how VST plugins operate. The original audio still remains intact after recording, and can be processed in 2 seperate ways. As an Insert or as another track recording the output from the hardware. How you go about doing this depends on what interface/daw/hardware you are using, which I cannot cover here so read your manuals to get an understanding on what steps you need to take to achieve this.

Now that we have spoken about how outboard gear can be used, lets talk a little about what types of outboard you can get in your studio. The most common types of outboard gear tends to be signal processors, such as compressors, eq's, limiters, reverbs, sonic exciters. Others can be accessories such as Headphone amplifiers, patcbays, Monitor Matrix's, signal splitters, tuners, almost anything that isnt contained within the computer. Some examples are below.

A common thing seen in studios are Hardware Compressors. These can range from insanely expensive such as the Universal Audio 1176 http://www.uaudio.com/products/hardware/21176/index.html(up to $3000) to cheaper untis such as the Behringer Autocom PRO http://www.behringer.com/EN/Products/MDX1400.aspx. You can get compressors that range from single channel strips to 4 input units. Some research and time will be required to see what you need.

Reverbs are a VERY handy tool to have as hardware. Software reverbs dont always sound as good as hardware version, but more importantly, they use massive amounts of CPU power to calculate and process the reverb. Having a hardware unit eliminates this issue freeing up some much needed processing power for the rest of the DAW. The Lexicon MX400 is a good example of a rack processor well suited to this task. http://www.lexiconpro.com/product.php?id=11

Headphone amplifier.
Such a simple device, yet such an important one. It carries the signal from your output, splits it, and sends it to multiple headphone outs simultaniously. Essential if recording a band live and they all wish to be able to hear what is happening via headphones at the one time. http://www.behringer.com/EN/Products/HA8000.aspx

There are WAY too many choice for me to go through in this guide and the examples above are just VERY basic examples or what outboard gear you can purchase. There are so many options to choose for so many different task that reading through some manufacturers websites may give your more insight into any specific equipment you may be looking for. As always, feel free to ask any questions if you need some advice on a certain area. We will be more than happy to answer.

Coming Soon.

Sample Rates/Word Clock.

Thanks for reading and stay tuned to this page for updates!

Last edited by greers7j on Thu Nov 04, 2010 2:30 am; edited 8 times in total
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PostSubject: Re: A Guide for Beginners.   Wed Oct 13, 2010 7:41 am

Cool post, indeed thumb
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PostSubject: Re: A Guide for Beginners.   Fri Oct 15, 2010 1:52 am

thank you very much
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A Guide for Beginners.
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